Libya

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Waves of conflict have caused population displacement and severe damage to housing and infrastructure across Libya. As the need for housing continues to be stretched, especially in urban areas and around major cities, and rental prices increase, this has exacerbated the difficulties of households in securing affordable housing and putting an increasing number of vulnerable families at risk of eviction. As a result, around 342,000 people are in need of shelter assistance.

The Shelter & NFI Sector's priority remains to ensure adequate, appropriate and affordable housing options for the most vulnerable people. This will be both in response to emergency situations, as well as providing more durable and tailored support depending on the specific needs of the population.

In 2020, closures of IDP collective centres are expected to continue, however many IDPs will remain displaced due to continued insecurity and/or an inability to return to areas of origin. IDPs, as well as the most vulnerable returnees, migrants and refugees and vulnerable non-displaced Libyans in areas affected by conflict will remain in need of shelter support to avoid movements into sub-standard shelters.

In order to prevent further deterioration of the shelter situation for the most vulnerable populations of concern, the sector response will be delivered in line with two objectives:

  • i) provide humanitarian life-saving and life-sustaining shelter and NFI support; and
  • ii) contribute to the resilience of communities and households by improving housing and related community/public infrastructure

 

Shelter & NFI Sector 4W Dashboard

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December 2020
@cgluck-UNHCR

 Highlights

NEED ANALYSIS

  • Insecurity and fighting triggered new displacement in the first six months of the year. At least 36,000 people were newly displaced from February to June due to escalation in armed conflict in western Libya.
  • In June significant changes to lines of control, with GNA-affiliated forces re-taking Tripoli, Tarhuna and nearby towns, saw displaced people slowly starting to return to their home areas. More than 18,000 people reportedly returned in July and August.
  • In 2020, nearly 376,000 people are estimated to need shelter and non-food items. This includes 58,000 displaced people, 82,000 returnees, 107,000 non-displaced Libyans, 82,000 migrants and 46,000 refugees. This is a 10 per cent increase in the number of people, compared to 2019, with the most significant increases among returnees. The most severe needs were found in Aljfara, Alkufra, Almarj, Benghazi, Misrata and Sirt, Tobruk and Tripoli. Shelter needs are particularly concentrated in the urban settlements in the east and west, where there is large destruction to houses and infrastructures due to conflict. Migrants and refugees were identified with the most severe shelter needs
  • Migrants and refugees continue to take risks in attempts to cross the Mediterranean to Europe. Although Libya is not a safe in 2020 11,265 individuals have been intercepted at sea and returned to ports of disembarkation, number of drowned and missing cases remain uncertain.
  • Those are most arbitrarily detained without due process in official detention centers, where widespread abuses have been documented. The number of migrants and refugees detained in official detention centers fluctuates, average between 2,200 and 3,100 people is reported, of these about 12 per cent are women and 27 per cent are children. These people are in immediate dire needs of protection and NFI assistance, while identification of durable solution remain crucial.

RESPONSE

  • In 2020 SNFI partners have reached 145,207 individuals of which 85,490 under HRP (178% of target) in 21 Mantika with the distribution of core and essential NFI; 32,582 individuals of which 17,440 under HRP (70% of target) also received winterization kits and additional items. This figure, which represents the 303% against the target shows that the number of people in need has increased in 2020 exponentially, 73,460 ind. IDPs, and 71.747 migrants and refugees received NFI assistance.
  • Regarding the shelter activities 5000 not Libyans were provided with emergency shelter materials kits (20% HRP target); 1,123 ind. (56% HRP target) of which 92% not Libyans were assisted with rental support in the urban areas of Tripoli and Misrata. In 4 Mantika: Benghazi, Ejdabia, Tripoli, Aljfara, 1260 IPDs (48% HRP target) were supported with the rehabilitation of their damaged dwellings, and 593 IDPs individuals benefitted of the rehabilitation of public buildings, while 5234 IDPs of the repair of community infrastructures. The rehabilitation of collective centers in Tripoli, which supported 1294 individuals (36% HRP target) of which 84% IDPs, was carried on only till February due to their closure announced by the Government.

CHALLENGES

  • The indiscriminate use of heavy weaponry in civilian areas has resulted in severe damage to housing and civilian infrastructure, social services including hospitals and schools, across the country. In the last 12 months attacks on infrastructure, lack of maintenance, fuel and energy crisis in the country, resulted in disruptions to water and electricity have further eroded people’s living standards; access to basic hygiene and sanitation services remains a challenge.
  • A significant constraint to people returning to their homes is the presence of booby-traps, IEDs, landmines and explosive remnants of war. New contaminated areas, such as Tripoli’s southern neighborhoods, are reported in addition to areas of Benghazi and Sirt contaminated from years of fighting.
  • High displacement, along with significant damage to civilian infrastructure, particularly in urban areas, increased the demand for safe shelter spaces, adding pressure on their availability and affordability. As a result, rental prices have risen to levels that many poor and low-income families are unable to afford, putting them at increased risk of eviction. This risk is more significant for displaced families, migrants and refugees, minority groups as many do not have formal rental contracts.
  • The increased threats of eviction to IDP’s residing in collective shelters with very little capacity with the sector partners to provide access to accommodation.
  • The ability of many people to afford rent, as well as to cover other basic needs, has also been eroded by the impact of COVID-19. COVID-19 related movement restrictions and curfews, temporary closure of business have seen many people’s access to livelihoods negatively affected, mostly migrants and refugees, who are employed on daily labor, and women mostly engaged in the informal sector.
  • Decreased income is leading to the adoption of harmful coping strategies and result in aggravated protection risks. People’s coping capacities have been stretched resulting in an increased number of those living in sub-standard or crowded conditions, where is difficult to follow preventative protocols to reduce the spread of COVID19.
  • The liquidity issues and limitations in accessing cash for both populations of concern as well as humanitarian actors in Libya significantly restricts the modalities of intervention, not allowing more cash based programming
  • Discrimination in access to services and a lack of documentation continue to prevent migrants and refugees from meeting their basic needs including shelter and NFI, accessing services including specialized protection assistance.
  • Humanitarian access, which has been a consistent challenge in Libya since the start of the conflict, continues to be a major obstacle for humanitarian partners to reach those in need and for people in need to access the assistance. Bureaucratic impediments such as delays in issuing of visas, conflict-related constraints along with explosive hazard contamination cause movements restrictions. In 2020, access has been compounded by COVID-19 and associated measures imposed by various authorities in Libya, as well as the global impediments related to travel and supply chains

 

Coverage against targets

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Coordination Team