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The context and needs 

Libya struggles to cope with the effects of ongoing armed conflict, economic and governance crises, and the direct and indirect impact of COVID-19 that has resulted in the deterioration of public services and people’s livelihoods.  For those still internally displaced since the 2011 conflict or looking to return, the lack of essential household items and adequate housing is a major issue and blockage to attain a durable solution.  For those seeking asylum, a new economic opportunities or access to Europe, face extreme difficulties in meeting basic needs and finding adequate accommodation. 

Significant damage to homes, particularly in urban areas, and high displacement has increased the demand for safe accommodation, adding pressure on their availability and affordability. This has resulted in many people living in sub-standard or overcrowded housing, compromising people’s standard of living, increasing protection and health-related risks.  A safe and dignified home is the foundation for recovery and a durable solution 

Many vulnerable households need different essential household items. These include mattresses, blankets, cooksets, water storage containers, cooking fuel and heating systems.  The sector defines an array of different kits for different needs and phases of displacement.  Due to liquidity crisis and significant challenges in the use of cash, in-kind continues to be the dominate modality. 

The conflict, combined with lack of income and increased needs due to COVID-19, necessitates the urgent repair and upgrade of community buildings and key infrastructure.  Needs range from repair of schools to upgraded health facilities to community spaces to aid social cohesion. 

Who do we serve? 

There are two principal target groups of the sector: 

(1) IDPs displaced due to conflict, host population and returnees and  

(2) refugees, asylum seekers and migrants. 

Both target groups fall under the responsibility of the Shelter and NFI Sector led by UNHCR and co-coordinated by NRC.  The Sector has 6 partners under the extended 2021 HRP (extended until May 2022). 

SNFI sector estimates the number of people in need of assistance in 2022 to be 397,000.  This includes 76,216 displaced people, 79,678 returnees78,208 non-displaced Libyans, 119,879 migrants and 43,000 refugees. 

The areas with highest need for housing rehabilitation are the baladiyas of Benghazi, Ejdabia, Sirte, SebhaAljfara and Tripoli. The areas of highest need for NFI support are the baladiyas of Benghazi, Sirte, MurzuqEjdabia and Misrata. For displaced people, housing was the top priority in Tripoli, Benghazi, and Misrata. 


What do we do? 

To meet the needs, the 2022 HRP SNFI financial requitement is $5.5 M for 5 months of which: 

  • 61% of its 2021 HRP portfolio is Essential Household Items for those returning, in detention or subject to secondary displacement.  This activity is governed by a sector endorsed guidance note. 

  • 34% of the sector’s work is focused on providing adequate housing for all population groups through rehabilitation and repair of accommodation and cash for rent. 

  • 5% of the sector’s work is related to the repair and rehabilitation of public buildings and infrastructure. 


Sector Objectives 


The SNFI is directly addressing the second Objective of the 2022 HRP: 


Specific Objective 2: Facilitate safe, equitable and dignified access to critical services and livelihoods to enhance people’s resilience and ensure they meet their basic needs. 


The Sector has two objectives that address the Specific Objective 2 from the HRP: 


Sectoral Objective 2.1: Provide humanitarian life-saving and life-sustaining shelter and NFI support 


Sectoral Objective 2.2: Contribute towards increased resilience and social cohesion of communities and households by improving housing and related community / public infrastructure 


Shelter & NFI Sector 4W Dashboard


See full factsheet
December 2021



  • In 2022, some 397,000 people are estimated to need shelter and NFI items.  This is a 6% increase in the number compared to 2021, with the most significant increase among the returnee population.

  • For refugees, migrants and those seeking asylum, 20% are in need of shelter support or support with NFI in 2022.  They face continued barriers in accessing the private rental market and what they can rent is often below standard.  A lack of security of tenure not only exposes them to arbitrary eviction, but also rental increases and harassment.

  • Although there is slight increase in the overall people in need of shelter support and NFI assistance (6 %), a marked increase was noted for IDPs and migrants.  Of the total remaining IDPs, 22,680 people live in sub-standard inadequate housing require technical and financial support to improve their housing conditions.  In addition, some 20,000 people are considered most vulnerable as they remain living in informal sites without access to adequate services and houses.

  • Improving security conditions have permitted more displaced people to return to their area of origins, creating new needs over the past 12 months. Once home, 88 % live in their original homes, which increases demands for materials and services for housing repair and replacement of essential household items. Lack of assistance in the form of compensation from the Government, and the deteriorated infrastructure pose several challenges for returnees, as the former housing benefit has yet to be reinstated.


  • In 2021, the Cluster supported 146,817 beneficiaries across all groups with Shelter and NFI support against a target of 110,948 IDPs, which represents 32% more than the target.
  • In 2021, the Cluster supported 120,244 with NFI assistance and 1,686 were assisted with shelter support and 24,887 benefitted from improved infrastructure and public buildings.
  • In 2021, the Cluster supported 63,059 IDPs, 34,068 migrants, 10,767 non-displaced (host), 31,718 refugees and 7,205 returnees.


  • The sector received 90% of its HRP request and so as result, many targets were exceeded, however partners failed to respond to the needs of returnees and host population affected by the conflict
  • Forced evictions have continued in 2021 with a myriad of stakeholders creating uncertainty and confusion for those facing evictions and frustrations for the humanitarian agencies looking to respond.  These forced evictions pose significant security concerns for all involved.
  • The sector continues to try to identify a key counterpart in the Government to engage with on issues such as compensation, rehabilitation funds, forced evictions and to develop a consolidated overview of the housing damage remaining.  The sector also continues to struggle to engage with the local civil society.


Coverage against targets

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Coordination Team