Ethiopia

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Shelter Cluster, September 2019

 Highlights

  • Cluster identified 2.1M as a cluster PIN that consists of 1.17 IDPs, 780,502 Returnees and 250,558 Non-displaced people
  • The cluster has targeted 1.9M consisting of 1.03M IDPs, 777,877 Returnees and 132,127 non-displaced people during the 2020 HRP
  • Cluster’s overall funding requirement for the year 2020 is $95.8 Million to address SNFI cluster needs, up-to-now 9.6% only covered.
  • Shelter/NFI Cluster assisted 12.72% out of 1.9M IDPs and Returnees across five Regions.

NFI

Shelter

Coverage against targets

Need analysis

The conflict has forced more than three million civilians to flee; meanwhile, significant return movements have occurred as of May 2019, 0.9 million displaced persons, are reported as having returned. However, some of these returns have taken place to areas where essential conditions for sustainable returns, including safety, access to critical services, and livelihood opportunities, are not yet in place.
Some part of the country has face secondary displacement, which has further exacerbated their hardship and exposes them more into vulnerability. Returning IDPs, who have not yet been able to return to their home areas, mainly due to insecurity or other reasons, have moved into the host communities. If the situation remains the same, these IDPs are at risk of further displacement and humanitarian crises due to the depletion of resources and the exhaustion of host-family capacities.
Many internally displaced people live in cramped conditions, including planned sites, spontaneous settlements, and in collective centers or within a-dense urban spaces. Multiple families are often forced to live with in the same building, share the same bathroom, the same cooking, and the same bathing facilities – if they have access at all. The ease with which the coronavirus spreads makes these living situations potentially disastrous. Second, the displaced generally have difficulty accessing essential services, such as adequate shelter, WASH, and healthcare. Besides, those fleeing conflict or natural disasters often struggle with underlying health conditions, including malnutrition, and opted to carry minimal items.

Response

Shelter & NFI cluster continued to coordinate the effective delivery of relevant and appropriate shelter solutions to address the severe needs of its target population. The cluster has diversified its shelter response to the displaced affected population by building upon the positive coping mechanism and the resilience through community engagement and empowerment. Depending on the level of damage and the living conditions, a range of responses such as Shelter Repair, ESNFIs, and Cash for Shelter will be provided to the displaced affected people. In the first quarter of 2020, the cluster has progressively assisted 247,769 vulnerable displacements affected population, inclusive of IDPs and returnees across Amhara, Benishangul Gumuz, Oromia, Somali, and SNNP regions respectively. Component of response includes Cash for rent/Shelter, ENSFI in-kind, ESNFI in-cash, and mixed ESNFI (118,550), partial ES/NFI kits (21,095) and (108,126) with shelter reconstruction and repair (Repair kit full, partial and mixed, minor shelter repairs kit) support. With this, the shelter & NFI cluster has achieved 12.72% of its target for the 2020 Response plan.

Gaps / challenges

A combination of factors ranging from insufficient funding, restricted access to vulnerably displaced population, the fragility of the security situation, and frequent population movement continue to pose a significant challenge for Shelter & NFI cluster partners to address overwhelming needs and gaps.
Besides, limited resources to address the frequent needs of climate-induced displacement remains a challenge for the cluster.
The resurgence of ethnic conflict, after a period of clam in key return areas, limits the delivery of timely shelter and settlement response.
Housing, Land, and Property (HLP) issues remains a bottleneck to provide longer-lasting shelter solution to many-affected population. Secondary occupation of homes, Loss of land, and titled documents were spotted as critical challenges to delivering timely repair/reconstruction assistance to vulnerable returnee population.